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Jim Appleyard
Jon Snaedal


Shared decision making based on clinical evidence and the patient’s informed preferences improves patient knowledge and ability to participate in their care with improvement to those with long-term health problems.A common ground between the patient and the physician is achieved through empathic communication skills with the provision of evidence-based information about options, outcomes, and uncertainties, together with decision support counseling and a systematic approach to recording and implementing patient’s preferences.It is important to recognize that the complexities of the clinical decision-making process with the confounding variables create difficulties in obtaining and measuring reproducible outcomes.

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