Main Article Content
. Degenhardt L, Chiu WT, Sampson N, Kessler RC, Anthony JC, Angermeyer M, et al. Toward a global view of alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, and cocaine use: findings from the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. PLoS Medicine. 2008 Jul 1;5(7):e141.
. Volkow ND. Fiscal Year 2013 Budget Request. Testimony Before the House Subcommittee on Labor-HHS-Education Appropriations. National Institute on Drug Abuse; 2012 [cited 2012 July 7]; Available from: http://www.drugabuse.gov/about-nida/legislative-activities/testimony-to-congress/2012/03/fiscal-year-2013-budget-request.
. Volkow N. Fiscal Year 2017 Budget Information - Congressional Justification for National Institute on Drug Abuse. National Institute on Drug Abuse; 2016 [8/9/2016]; Available from: https://www.drugabuse.gov/about-nida/legislative-activities/budget-information/fiscal-year-2017-budget-information-congressional-justification-national-institute-drug-abuse.
. Vanyukov MM, Tarter RE, Kirillova GP, Kirisci L, Reynolds MD, Kreek MJ, et al. Common liability to addiction and "gateway hypothesis": theoretical, empirical and evolutionary perspective. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012 Jun;123 Suppl 1:S3-17.
. O'Brien CP, Volkow N, Li TK. What's in a word? Addiction versus dependence in DSM-V. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 May;163(5):764-5.
. SAMHSA. Behavioral Health Barometer: United States, 2015. HHS Publication No. SMA–16–Baro–2015. Rockville, MD: Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration; Available from: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/sites/default/files/2015_National_Barometer.pdf.
. Vanyukov MM, Tarter RE, Conway KP, Kirillova GP, Chandler RK, Daley DC. Risk and resistance perspectives in translation-oriented etiology research. Transl Behav Med. 2016 Mar;6(1):44-54.
. Mezzich JE, Christodoulou GN, Fulford KWM. Introduction to the Conceptual Bases of Psychiatry for the Person. The International Journal of Person Centered Medicine. 2011;1(1):121-124.
. Vanyukov MM, Kirisci L, Tarter RE, Simkevitz HF, Kirillova GP, Maher BS, et al. Liability to substance use disorders: 2. A measurement approach. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2003 Oct;27(6):517-26.
. National Institute on Drug Abuse. 2016-2020 NIDA Strategic Plan. National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; 2015. Available from: https://www.drugabuse.gov/sites/default/files/nida_2016strategicplan_032316.pdf
. Falconer DS. The inheritance of liability to certain diseases, estimated from the incidence among relatives. Annals of Human Genetics. 1965;29:51-76.
. Bucholz KK, Heath AC, Reich T, Hesselbrock VM, Kramer JR, Nurnberger JI, Jr., et al. Can we subtype alcoholism? A latent class analysis of data from relatives of alcoholics in a multicenter family study of alcoholism. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1996 Nov;20(8):1462-71.
. Neale MC, Cardon L. Methodology for Genetic Studies of Twins and Families. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers; 1992.
. Reich T, Cloninger CR, Guze SB. The multifactorial model of disease transmission: I. Description of the model and its use in psychiatry. Br J Psychiatry. 1975;127:1-10.
. Vanyukov MM, Kirisci L, Moss L, Tarter RE, Reynolds MD, Maher BS, et al. Measurement of the risk for substance use disorders: phenotypic and genetic analysis of an index of common liability. Behav Genet. 2009 May;39(3):233-44.
. Vanyukov MM, Tarter RE, Kirisci L, Kirillova GP, Maher BS, Clark DB. Liability to substance use disorders: 1. Common mechanisms and manifestations. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2003 Oct;27(6):507-15.
. Kendler KS, Jacobson KC, Prescott CA, Neale MC. Specificity of genetic and environmental risk factors for use and abuse/dependence of cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, sedatives, stimulants, and opiates in male twins. Am J Psychiatry. 2003 Apr;160(4):687-95.
. Tsuang MT, Lyons MJ, Meyer JM, Doyle T, Eisen SA, Goldberg J, et al. Co-occurrence of abuse of different drugs in men: the role of drug-specific and shared vulnerabilities. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998 Nov;55(11):967-72.
. Vanyukov MM. Substance-specific symptoms and general liability to addiction. Am J Psychiatry. 2012 Oct;169(10):1016-8.
. Conway KP, Levy J, Vanyukov M, Chandler R, Rutter J, Swan GE, et al. Measuring addiction propensity and severity: the need for a new instrument. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 Sep 1;111(1-2):4-12.
. Kendler KS, Prescott CA, Myers J, Neale MC. The structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for common psychiatric and substance use disorders in men and women. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003 Sep;60(9):929-37.
. Young SE, Stallings MC, Corley RP, Krauter KS, Hewitt JK. Genetic and environmental influences on behavioral disinhibition. Am J Med Genet. 2000 Oct 9;96(5):684-95.
. Koob GF, Le Moal M. Drug addiction, dysregulation of reward, and allostasis. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2001 Feb;24(2):97-129.
. Kreek MJ, Koob GF. Drug dependence: stress and dysregulation of brain reward pathways. Drug Alcohol Depend. 1998 Jun-Jul;51(1-2):23-47.
. Tarter RE, Vanyukov M. Alcoholism: a developmental disorder. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1994 Dec;62(6):1096-107.
. Eiden RD, Godleski S, Schuetze P, Colder CR. Prenatal substance exposure and child self-regulation: Pathways to risk and protection. J Exp Child Psychol. 2015 Sep;137:12-29.
. Vanyukov MM, Tarter RE. Genetic studies of substance abuse. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2000 May 1;59(2):101-23.
. Lahey BB, Waldman ID. A developmental model of the propensity to offend during childhood and adolescence. In: Farrington DP, editor. Integrated Developmental and Life-Course Theories of Offending. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers; 2005. p. 15-50.
. Berrettini W, Bierut L, Crowley TJ, Cubells JF, Frascella J, Gelernter J, et al. Setting priorities for genomic research. Science. 2004 Jun 4;304(5676):1445-7; author reply 1445-7.
. Miller AL, Sturza J, Rosenblum K, Vazquez DM, Kaciroti N, Lumeng JC. Salivary alpha amylase diurnal pattern and stress response are associated with body mass index in low-income preschool-aged children. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015 Mar;53:40-8.
. Obasi EM, Shirtcliff EA, Brody GH, MacKillop J, Pittman DM, Cavanagh L, et al. The relationship between alcohol consumption, perceived stress, and CRHR1 genotype on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in rural African Americans. Front Psychol. 2015;6:832.
. Pappa I, St Pourcain B, Benke K, Cavadino A, Hakulinen C, Nivard MG, et al. A genome-wide approach to children's aggressive behavior: The EAGLE consortium. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2016 Jul;171(5):562-72.
. Maher BS, Vladimirov VI, Latendresse SJ, Thiselton DL, McNamee R, Kang M, et al. The AVPR1A gene and substance use disorders: association, replication, and functional evidence. Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Sep 15;70(6):519-27.
. Masten AS, Best KM, Garmezy N. Resilience and development: Contributions from the study of children who overcome adversity. Development and Psychopathology. 1990;2:425-444.
. Hawkins JD, Catalano RF, Miller JY. Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychol Bull. 1992 Jul;112(1):64-105.
. Schulenberg JE, Maggs JL. A developmental perspective on alcohol use and heavy drinking during adolescence and the transition to young adulthood. Journal of studies on alcohol Supplement. 2002 Mar(14):54-70.
. Goedde HW, Agarwal DP, Harada S, Meier-Tackmann D, Ruofu D, Bienzle U, et al. Population genetic studies on aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme deficiency and alcohol sensitivity. Am J Hum Genet. 1983 Jul;35(4):769-72.
. Harada S, Agarwal DP, Goedde HW. Aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphism and alcohol metabolism in alcoholics. Alcohol. 1985 May-Jun;2(3):391-2.
. Harada S, Agarwal DP, Goedde HW, Tagaki S, Ishikawa B. Possible protective role against alcoholism for aldehyde dehydrogenase isozyme deficiency in Japan. Lancet. 1982 Oct 9;2(8302):827.
. Macgregor S, Lind PA, Bucholz KK, Hansell NK, Madden PA, Richter MM, et al. Associations of ADH and ALDH2 gene variation with self report alcohol reactions, consumption and dependence: an integrated analysis. Hum Mol Genet. 2009 Feb 1;18(3):580-93.
. Zhong S, Monakhov M, Mok HP, Tong T, Lai PS, Chew SH, et al. U-shaped relation between plasma oxytocin levels and behavior in the trust game. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e51095.
. Steinberg L, Monahan KC. Age differences in resistance to peer influence. Dev Psychol. 2007 Nov;43(6):1531-43.
. Spirito A, Hernandez L, Cancilliere MK, Graves H, Knopik VS, Barnett N. Improving parenting and parent-teen communication to delay or prevent the onset of alcohol and drug use in young adolescents with emotional/behavioral disorders: A pilot trial. J Child Adolesc Subst Abuse. 2015 Sep 1;24(5):308-322.
. Suchman NE, Decoste C, McMahon TJ, Rounsaville B, Mayes L. The Mothers and Toddlers Program, an Attachment-Based Parenting Intervention for Substance-Using Women: Results at 6-Week Follow-up in a Randomized Clinical Pilot. Infant Ment Health J. 2011 Jul;32(4):427-449.
. Telzer EH, Ichien NT, Qu Y. Mothers know best: redirecting adolescent reward sensitivity toward safe behavior during risk taking. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2015 Oct;10(10):1383-91.
. Fulkerson JA, Harrison PA, Beebe TJ. DSM-IV substance abuse and dependence: are there really two dimensions of substance use disorders in adolescents? Addiction. 1999 Apr;94(4):495-506.
. Hartman CA, Gelhorn H, Crowley TJ, Sakai JT, Stallings M, Young SE, et al. Item response theory analysis of DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence criteria in adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008 Feb;47(2):165-73.
. Baker JH, Maes HH, Larsson H, Lichtenstein P, Kendler KS. Sex differences and developmental stability in genetic and environmental influences on psychoactive substance consumption from early adolescence to young adulthood. Psychol Med. 2011 Sep;41(9):1907-16.
. Vrieze SI, Perlman G, Krueger RF, Iacono WG. Is the continuity of externalizing psychopathology the same in adolescents and middle-aged adults? A test of the externalizing spectrum's developmental coherence. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2012 Apr;40(3):459-70.
. Kirisci L, Tarter R, Mezzich A, Ridenour T, Reynolds M, Vanyukov M. Prediction of cannabis use disorder between boyhood and young adulthood: clarifying the phenotype and environtype. Am J Addict. 2009 Jan-Feb;18(1):36-47.
. Rice J, Cloninger CR, Reich T. General causal models for sex differences in the familial transmission of multifactorial traits: an application to human spatial visualizing ability. Soc Biol. 1980 Spring;27(1):36-47.
. Vanyukov M, Moss H, Tarter R. Research designs in family studies. In: Sloboda Z, Bukowski WJ, editors. Handbook of Drug Abuse Prevention: Theory Science and Practice. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers; 2003. p. 497-519.
. Kendler KS, Myers J, Prescott CA. Specificity of genetic and environmental risk factors for symptoms of cannabis, cocaine, alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine dependence. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 Nov;64(11):1313-20.
. Haberstick BC, Zeiger JS, Corley RP, Hopfer CJ, Stallings MC, Rhee SH, et al. Common and drug-specific genetic influences on subjective effects to alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use. Addiction. 2011 Jan;106(1):215-24.
. Palmer RH, Button TM, Rhee SH, Corley RP, Young SE, Stallings MC, et al. Genetic etiology of the common liability to drug dependence: evidence of common and specific mechanisms for DSM-IV dependence symptoms. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012 Jun;123 Suppl 1:S24-32.
. Palmer RH, Young SE, Corley RP, Hopfer CJ, Stallings MC, Hewitt JK. Stability and change of genetic and environmental effects on the common liability to alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis DSM-IV dependence symptoms. Behav Genet. 2013 Sep;43(5):374-85.
. Rhee SH, Hewitt JK, Young SE, Corley RP, Crowley TJ, Stallings MC. Genetic and environmental influences on substance initiation, use, and problem use in adolescents. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2003 Dec;60(12):1256-64.
. Vanyukov M, Kim K, Irons D, Kirisci L, Neale M, Ridenour T, et al. Genetic relationship between the addiction diagnosis in adults and their childhood measure of addiction liability. Behav Genet. 2015 Jan;45(1):1-11.
. Hicks BM, Iacono WG, McGue M. Index of the transmissible common liability to addiction: heritability and prospective associations with substance abuse and related outcomes. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012 Jun;123 Suppl 1:S18-23.
. Arria AM, Vincent KB, Caldeira KM. Measuring liability for substance use disorder among college students: implications for screening and early intervention. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2009;35(4):233-41.
. Addiction Vulnerability - Child.
. NIMH. NIMH Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). National Institute of Mental Health; 2011 [cited 2014 December 6]; Available from: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/research-priorities/rdoc/nimh-research-domain-criteria-rdoc.shtml.
. Stout WF. A new item response theory modeling approach with applications to unidimensionality assessment and ability estimation. Psychometrika. 1990;55(2):293-325.
. Samejima F. Estimation of ability using a response pattern of graded scores. 1969.
. Reckase MD. A procedure for decision making using tailored testing. In: Weiss DW, editor. New Horizons in Testing: Latent Trait Test Theory and Computerized Adaptive Testing. New York: Academic Press; 1983. p. 238-255.
. Embretson SE, Reise SP. Item response theory for psychologists. Mahwah, N.J.: L. Erlbaum Associates; 2000.
. Hambleton RK, Swaminathan H, Rogers HJ. Fundamentals of Item Response Theory. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications; 1991.
. Bollen K, Lennox R. Conventional wisdom on measurement: A structural equation perspective. Psychological Bulletin. 1991;110:305-314.
. De Ayala RJ. The theory and practice of item response theory. New York: Guilford Press; 2009.
. NIH. Rigor and Reproducibility. National Institutes of Health, Office of Extramural Research; 2016. Available from: http://grants.nih.gov/reproducibility/index.htm#guidance.
. Kirisci L, Tarter R, Reynolds M, Ridenour T, Stone C, Vanyukov M. Computer adaptive testing of liability to addiction: identifying individuals at risk. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012 Jun;123 Suppl 1:S79-86.
. Kirisci L, Tarter RE, Vanyukov M, Martin C, Mezzich A, Brown S. Application of item response theory to quantify substance use disorder severity. Addict Behav. 2006 Jun;31(6):1035-49.
. Kirisci L, Vanyukov M, Dunn M, Tarter R. Item response theory modeling of substance use: an index based on 10 drug categories. Psychol Addict Behav. 2002 Dec;16(4):290-8.
. Segall DO. Multidimensional adaptive testing. Psychometrika. 1996;61:331-354.
. Kirisci L, Tarter RE, Reynolds M, Vanyukov MM. Item response theory analysis to assess dimensionality of substance use disorder abuse and dependence symptoms. Int J Person Centered Med. In press.
. Boker S, Neale M, Maes H, Wilde M, Spiegel M, Brick T, et al. OpenMx: An Open Source Extended Structural Equation Modeling Framework. Psychometrika. 2011 Apr 1;76(2):306-317.
. Neale MC, Hunter MD, Pritikin JN, Zahery M, Brick TR, Kirkpatrick RM, et al. OpenMx 2.0: Extended Structural Equation and Statistical Modeling. Psychometrika. 2016 Jun;81(2):535-49.
. Ridenour TA, Kirisci L, Tarter RE, Vanyukov MM. Could a continuous measure of individual transmissible risk be useful in clinical assessment of substance use disorder? Findings from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011 Dec 1;119(1-2):10-7.