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Juan E. Mezzich
Fredy A. Canchihuamán
Eduardo Ticona
Marcos Burgos
Ricardo Fábrega
Christine C. Leyns
Martha Villar-López
Oscar Cluzet
Carlos Arósquipa


Introduction. The complex problem of COVID-19 and the possibilities of responding through innovative general health strategies have been raised. The development of innovative health strategies was stimulated by the 1978 Alma Ata Declaration on Primary Health Care and by related perspectives around the 2018 Astana Conference. To this may be added the contributions of the International College and the Latin American Network of Person Centered Medicine toward the exploration and formulation of innovative concepts and strategies of health focused on persons.Objectives: (1) Ontological clarification of the concept of health and of the strategies and tactics for health actions; (2) Delineation of and assessment of multifactorial support for promising general health strategies focused on persons; and (3) Elucidation of the relevance of such strategies to respond to the demands of the COVID-19 pandemic.Methods: (a) Analysis and reflection on health concepts and strategies by a multidisciplinary authors group; (b) Selective review of the international and Latin American literature on health systems and the pandemic, displayed, and analyzed tabular and narratively.Results1. Ontological concepts corresponding to the meaning and functions of health and of specific general strategies and tactics to restore and promote health were formulated.2. A general health strategy was outlined based on an analysis of the process of building promising health constructs emerging from conferences and international declarations in recent years. Then, early and contemporary historical considerations, as well as contextual perspectives (Social Determinants of Health, the Sustainable Development Goals, and the Essential Functions of Public Health) were identified as supporting the specific elements of the persons-centered mutual and integral healthcare strategy.3. The relevance of the essential concept of health and the elements of the examined general health strategy was ascertained positively to respond to the demands of the current pandemic.Discussion: The value, implications, and limitations of the results obtained were discussed in the light of COVID-19 and future pandemics. Emerging recommendations on desirable next steps were also presented.Conclusions: The contributions of this study include the ontological clarification of the concept of person-centered health and the strategies and tactics for health actions, as well as the historical and contemporary multifactorial substantiation of the general health strategy involving Integral and Mutual Health Care Oriented to the Well-being of all Persons, particularly in the face of the demands of the COVID-19 pandemic.

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