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Latin American Bases and Perspectives on Person Centered Medicine and Health

Patrick Wagner, Alberto Perales, Rodolfo Armas, Oscar Codas, Raul de los Santos, Daniel Elio-Calvo, Juan Mendoza-Vega, Meliton Arce, José Luis Calderón, Lucia Llosa, Javier Saavedra, Oscar Ugarte, Herman Vildózola, Juan E Mezzich

Abstract


Background: This paper emerges as part of a process lead by the National Academy of Medicine of Peru in close collaboration with other Latin American National Academies of Medicine, major universities and health professional institutions

Objectives: To describe and substantiate the importance of Person Centered Medicine (PCM) in the Latin American context.

Methodology: Review of Latin American scientific literature and experiences on this issue and organization of academic meetings to deliberate on related problems, two preliminary ones in Lima in December 2013 and January 2014, a third one in Buenos Aires at the Second International Congress of Person Centered Medicine with the participation of the National Academies of Medicine of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile and Peru (November, 2014), and a fourth in Lima with the presence of the National Academies of Medicine of Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay and Peru (December, 2014).

Results: Historical and contemporary, universal and local precedents to the gestation and development of a re-prioritization of medicine in relation to the Person in context are pointed out, articulating for such purpose science and humanism. The concept of Person in medicine from a philosophical point of view, including terminological, historical and human rights dimensions, are discussed. Upon these bases, the central concepts of PCM are considered, emphasizing its pertinence in clinical medicine as well as in public health, clinical care, education, research, and health policies. In regards to clinical education and practice, the PCM concept as a fundamental strategic principle, its programmatic educational applications and its institutionalization at a medical school level are proposed. The importance of ethical training and clinical communication as well as the appropriate use of technology and scientific evidence at the service of the Person are highlighted. Available institutional opportunities for health professional interdisciplinary education as well as Latin American educational perspectives are discussed. Scientific research on PCM is highlighted particularly concerning studies on conceptualization, measurement and diagnosis, including the need to construct narrative complementary instruments. Furthermore, perspectives on health policies centered on the person and the community are considered as well as contributions and recommendations derived from Latin American experience on this topic.

Conclusions: PCM values biologic, psychological and socio-cultural scientific advances, processing them within the comprehensive framework of the Person, articulating science as an essential instrument and humanism as the essence of medicine. In contraposition to reductionist epistemological formulations, PCM proposes a medicine informed by evidence and experience and oriented towards the totality of the person.


Keywords


Person Centered Medicine, Health Care, Health Policy, Health Education and Research, Latin America

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5750/ijpcm.v4i4.494

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