Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

A Time for Action on Health Inequities: Foundations of the 2014 Geneva Declaration on Person- and People-centered Integrated Health Care for All

C. Robert Cloninger, Luis Salvador-Carulla, Laurence J. Kirmayer, Michael A. Schwartz, James Appleyard, Nick Goodwin, JoAnna Groves, Marc H. M. Hermans, Juan E. Mezzich, C. W. van Staden, Salman Rawaf

Abstract


Global inequalities contribute to marked disparities in health and wellness of human populations. Many opportunities now exist to provide health care to all people in a person- and people-centered way that is effective, equitable, and sustainable.  We review these opportunities and the scientific, historical, and philosophical considerations that form the basis for the International College of Person-centered Medicine’s 2014 Geneva Declaration onPerson- and People-centered Integrated Health Care for All.  Using consistent time-series data, we critically examine examples of universal healthcare systems in Chile, Spain, and Cuba.

In a person-centered approach to public health, people are recognized to have intrinsic dignity and are treated with respect to encourage their developing health and happiness.  A person-centered approach supports the freedom and the responsibility to develop one’s life in ways that are personally meaningful and that are respectful of others and the environment in which we live together.  Evidence suggests that health care organizations function well when they operate in a person-and people-centered way because that stimulates better coordination, cooperation, and social trust. 

Health care coverage must be integrated at several interconnected levels in order to be effective, efficient, and fair.  To reduce the burden of disease, integration is needed between the people seeking and delivering care, within the social network of each person, across the trajectory of each person’s life, among primary caregivers and specialists, and across multiple sectors of society.   For integration to succeed across all these levels, it must foster common values and a shared vision of the future.


Keywords


Public Health, Universal Health Care, Health Care Integration, Person-centered Medicine, Complex Adaptive Systems, Health Promotion

Full Text:

PDF

References


. Randers, J., 2052: A Global Forecast for the Next Forty Years: A report to the Club of Rome Commemorating the 40th Anniversary of The Limits to Growth. 2012, White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green Publishing.

. Ball, P., Why Society is a Complex Matter: Meeting 21st century challenges with a new kind of science. 1st ed. 2012, New York: Springer.

. Ahmed, N.M., A User's Guide to the Crisis of Civilization and How to Save It. 2010, New York: Pluto Press.

. Wackernagel, M., et al., Tracking the ecological overshoot of the human economy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2002. 99(14): p. 9266-71.

. Parkes, M.W. and P. Horwitz, Water, ecology and health: ecosystems as settings for promoting health and sustainability. Health Promot Int, 2009. 24(1): p. 94-102.

. Mooney, H., A. Cropper, and W. Reid, Confronting the human dilemma. Nature, 2005. 434(7033): p. 561-2.

. Winch, P. and R. Stepnitz, Peak oil and health in low- and middle-income countries: impacts and potential responses. Am J Public Health, 2011. 101(9): p. 1607-14.

. Barnosky, A.D., et al., Approaching a state shift in Earth's biosphere. Nature, 2012. 486(7401): p. 52-8.

. Brook, B.W., et al., Does the terrestrial biosphere have planetary tipping points? Trends Ecol Evol, 2013. 28(7): p. 396-401.

. WHO, Draft Twelfth General Programme of Work, S.-s.W.H. Assembly, Editor. 2013, World Health Organization: Geneva. p. 1-48.

. Unger, J.P., et al., Costa Rica: achievements of a heterodox health policy. Am J Public Health, 2008. 98(4): p. 636-43.

WHO, World Health Report 2008: Primary Health Care. 2008, WHO: Geneva.

. Mokdad, A.H., et al., Actual causes of death in the United States, 2000. JAMA, 2004. 291(10): p. 1238-45.

. Marmot, M., Health in an unequal world: social circumstances, biology and disease. Clin Med, 2006. 6(6): p. 559-72.

. Wilkinson, R. and M. Marmot, Social Determinants of Health: The Solid Facts, WHO, Editor. 2003, World Health Organization: Copenhagen.

. Eisenberg, L., Does social medicine still matter in an era of molecular medicine? J Urban Health, 1999. 76(2): p. 164-75.

. Prochaska, J.O. and W.F. Velicer, The transtheoretical model of health behavior change. American Journal of Health Promotion, 1997. 12(1): p. 38-48.

. Nigg, C.R., et al., Stages of change across ten health risk behaviors for older adults. Gerontologist, 1999. 39(4): p. 473-482.

. UN. Millenium Development Goals and Beyond 2015. 2000 [cited 2013 December 2, 2013]; Available from: http://www.un.org/millenniumgoals/.

. WHO, World Health Report: Research for Universal Health Coverage. 2013, WHO: Geneva.

. Mezzich, J.E., et al., Person-centred integrative diagnosis: conceptual bases and structural model. Can J Psychiatry, 2010. 55(11): p. 701-8.

. ICPCM, Geneva Declaration on Person-centered Care for Chronic Diseases. International Journal of Person-centered Medicine, 2012. 2(2): p. 153-154.

. ICPCM, Geneva Declaration on Person-centered Health Research. International Journal of Person-centered Medicine, 2013. 3(2): p. 106-107.

. Salvador-Carulla, L., et al., Background, Structure and Priorities of the 2013 Geneva Declaration on Person-centered Health Research. International Journal of Person-centered Medicine, 2013. 3(2): p. 109-113.

. ICPCM, Geneva Declaration on Person- and People-centered Health Care for All. International Journal of Person-centered Medicine, 2014. 4: p. to be determined.

. Mezzich, J.E., et al., Introduction to person-centred medicine: from concepts to practice. J Eval Clin Pract, 2011. 17(2): p. 330-2.

. WHO, What is people-centred health care?, W.P.R.O. (WPRO), Editor. 2013, World Health Organization: Manila, Philippines.

. Kateb, G., Human Dignity. 2011, Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

. Kant, I., ed. The Philosophy of Kant : Immanuel Kant's Moral and Political Writings. The Modern Library, ed. C.J. Friedrich. 1993, Random House: New York.

. Lukes, S., Moral Relativism. 2008, New York: Picador.

. Peterson, C. and M.E. Seligman, Character Strengths and Virtues: A handbook and classification. 2004, New York: Oxford University Press.

. Schwartz, S., Universals in the content and structure of values: Theoretical advances and empirical tests in 20 countries, in Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, M. Zanna, Editor. 1992, Academic Press: Orlando, FL. p. 1-65.

. Page, S.E., Diversity and Complexity. 2011, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

. Page, S.E., The Difference: How the power of diversity creates better groups, firms, scools, and societies. 2007, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

. Kirmayer, L.J., Culture and context in human rights, in Mental Health and Human Rights: Vision, Praxis and Courage, M. Dudley, D. Silove, and F. Gale, Editors. 2012, Oxford University Press: Oxford. p. 95-112.

. Cloninger, C.R., D.M. Svrakic, and T.R. Przybeck, A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 1993. 50(12): p. 975-90.

. Cloninger, C.R., Feeling Good: The Science of Well-Being. 2004, New York: Oxford University Press. 374.

. Schwartz, S.H. and T. Rubel, Sex differences in value priorities: cross-cultural and multimethod studies. J Pers Soc Psychol, 2005. 89(6): p. 1010-28.

. WHO, Definition of Health: Preamble to the Constitution of the World Health Organization. 1946, World Health Organization: New York.

. UN, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, O.o.t.H.C.f.H. Rights, Editor. 1948, United Nations: Paris.

. Williams, P., ed. The International Bill of Human Rights. 1981, Entwhistle Books: Glen Ellen, CA.

. Povinelli, D.J. and S. Giambrone, Reasoning about beliefs: a human specialization? Child Dev, 2001. 72(3): p. 691-5.

. Tulving, E., Episodic memory and common sense: how far apart? Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, 2001. 356(1413): p. 1505-15.

. Jonas, H., The Phenomenon of Life: Toward a Philosophical Biology. 2001, Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press.

. Jonas, H., The Imperative of Responsibility: In Search of an Ethics for the Technological Age. 1985, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

. Iyer, R., et al., Understanding libertarian morality: the psychological dispositions of self-identified libertarians. PLoS One, 2012. 7(8): p. e42366.

. Berlin, I., Four Essays on Liberty. 1969, New York: Oxford University Press.

. Heller, R.F. and R.F. Heller, Healthy Selfishness. 2006, Des Moines, Iowa: Meredith Books.

Rand, A. and N. Branden, The Virtue of Selfishness. 1964, New York: Signet.

. Huehn, M.P., Unenlightened economism: The antecedents of bad corporate governance and ethical decline. Journal of Business Ethics, 2008. 81(4): p. 823-835.

1. Sussman, R.W. and A.R. Chapman, eds. The Origins and Nature of Sociality. 2004, Aldine de Gruyter: New York.

. Sussman, R.W. and C.R. Cloninger, eds. Origins of Cooperation and Altruism. First ed. Developments in Primatology: Progress and Prospects, ed. R.H. Tuttle. Vol. 36. 2011, Springer: New York.

. Call, J. and M. Tomasello, Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind? 30 years later. Trends Cogn Sci, 2008. 12(5): p. 187-92.

[. Tomasello, M., A Natural History of Human Thinking. 2014, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

[. de Waal, F.B., Primates--a natural heritage of conflict resolution. Science, 2000. 289(5479): p. 586-90.

. Limb, C.J. and A.R. Braun, Neural substrates of spontaneous musical performance: an FMRI study of jazz improvisation. PLoS One, 2008. 3(2): p. e1679.

. Moll, J., et al., Human fronto-mesolimbic networks guide decisions about charitable donation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2006. 103(42): p. 15623-8.

. Otake, K., et al., Happy People Become Happier through Kindness: A Counting Kindnesses Intervention. J Happiness Stud, 2006. 7(3): p. 361-375.

. ACE, The Value of Arts and Culture to People and Society: An evidence review. 2014, Arts Council England: Manchester, UK.

. Daw, N.D., et al., Cortical substrates for exploratory decisions in humans. Nature, 2006. 441(7095): p. 876-9.

. Cloninger, C.R. and A.H. Zohar, Personality and the perception of health and happiness. J Affect Disord, 2011. 128(1-2): p. 24-32.

. Cloninger, C.R., What makes people healthy, happy, and fulfilled in the face of current world challenges? Mens Sana Monogr, 2013. 11: p. 16-24.

. Zohar, A.H., C.R. Cloninger, and R. McCraty, Personality and Heart Rate Variability: Exploring Pathways from Personality to Cardiac Coherence and Health. Journal of Social Sciences, 2013. 1(6): p. 32-39.

. De Vogli, R., et al., Unfairness and health: evidence from the Whitehall II Study. J Epidemiol Community Health, 2007. 61(6): p. 513-8.

. Ferrie, J.E., et al., Injustice at work and incidence of psychiatric morbidity: the Whitehall II study. Occup Environ Med, 2006. 63(7): p. 443-50.

. Ferrie, J.E., et al., Health effects of anticipation of job change and non-employment: longitudinal data from the Whitehall II study. BMJ, 1995. 311(7015): p. 1264-9.

. Marmot, A.F., et al., Building health: an epidemiological study of "sick building syndrome" in the Whitehall II study. Occup Environ Med, 2006. 63(4): p. 283-9.

. Marmot, M.G., et al., Contribution of job control and other risk factors to social variations in coronary heart disease incidence. Lancet, 1997. 350(9073): p. 235-9.

. Marmot, M.G., et al., Biological and behavioural explanations of social inequalities in coronary heart disease: the Whitehall II study. Diabetologia, 2008. 51(11): p. 1980-8.

. Marmot, M.G. and G.D. Smith, Socio-economic Differentials in Health. J Health Psychol, 1997. 2(3): p. 283-96.

. Marmot, M.G., et al., Health inequalities among British civil servants: the Whitehall II study. Lancet, 1991. 337(8754): p. 1387-93.

. Pickett, K. and R. Wilkinson, The Spirit Level: Why greater equality makes societies stronger. 2009, New York: Bloombury Press.

. Hagger, N., The Rise and Fall of Civilizations. 2008, Winchester, UK: O Books/John Hunt Publishing Ltd.

. Acemoglu, D. and J. Robinson, Why Nations Fail: The origins of power, prosperity, and poverty. 2012, New York: Crown Publishing Group.

. Cloninger, C.R., The evolution of human brain functions: the functional structure of human consciousness. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 2009. 43(11): p. 994-1006.

. Fehr, E., H. Bernhard, and B. Rockenbach, Egalitarianism in young children. Nature, 2008. 454(7208): p. 1079-83.

. Erk, C., Health, Rights, and Dignity: Philosophical Reflections on an Alleged Human Right. 2010: Ontos Verlag.

. Bosma, H., et al., Low job control and risk of coronary heart disease in Whitehall II (prospective cohort) study. BMJ, 1997. 314(7080): p. 558-65.

. Bosma, H., S.A. Stansfeld, and M.G. Marmot, Job control, personal characteristics, and heart disease. J Occup Health Psychol, 1998. 3(4): p. 402-9.

. Graeber, D., Debt: The first 5,000 years. 2011, Brooklyn, NY: Melville House.

. Skidelsky, R. and E. Skidelsky, How much is enough? Money and the Good Life. 2012, New York: Other Press.

[. Daniels, N., Justice and Access to Health Care, in Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, E.N. Zalta, Editor. 2013, Stanford: Palo Alto.

[. Braveman, P. and S. Gruskin, Defining equity in health. J Epidemiol Community Health, 2003. 57(4): p. 254-8.

. Gwatkin, D.R. and A. Ergo, The Equity Perspective, in The Labor market for Health Workers in Africa: A new look at the Crisis, A. Soucat, R. Scheffler, and T.A. Ghebreyesus, Editors. 2013, World Bank: Washington DC.

. Hall, J.J. and R. Taylor, Health for all beyond 2000: the demise of the Alma-Ata Declaration and primary health care in developing countries. Med J Aust, 2003. 178(1): p. 17-20.

. Bennett, F.J., Primary health care and developing countries. Soc Sci Med, 1979. 13A(5): p. 505-14.

. Idriss, A.A., et al., Sudan: national health programme and primary health care, 1977/78-1983/84. Bull World Health Organ, 1976. 53(4): p. 461-71.

. WHO, Declaration of Alma-Ata, in International Conference on Primary Health Care. 1978, World Health Organization: Alma-Ata, USSR. p. 12.

. Cleaver, S. and S. Nixon, A scoping review of 10 years of published literature on community-based rehabilitation. Disabil Rehabil.

. WHO, Global Strategy for Health for All by the year 2000. 1981, World Health Organization: Geneva.

. Cueto, M., The origins of primary health care and selective primary health care. Am J Public Health, 2004. 94(11): p. 1864-74.

[. Stephenson, J., et al., Population, development, and climate change: links and effects on human health. Lancet, 2013. 382(9905): p. 1665-73.

. NAS, Rapid population growth: consequences and policy implications. 1971, John Hopkins University Press: Baltimore.

. Meadows, D.H., et al., The Limits to Growth: A report for the Club of Rome Project on the Predicament of Mankind. 1972, New York: New American Library.

. Lee, R. and A. Mason, Fertility, Human Capital, and Economic Growth over the Demographic Transition. Eur J Popul, 2010. 26(2): p. 159-182.

. Mason, A., Population growth, economic development and family planning. Asian Pac Popul Forum, 1986. 1(1): p. 1-6.

. Hesketh, T., L. Lu, and Z.W. Xing, The effect of China's one-child family policy after 25 years. N Engl J Med, 2005. 353(11): p. 1171-6.

. Schoen, J., Choice and Coercion: Birth Control, Sterilization, and Abortion in Public health and Welfare. 1st ed. 2005, Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Caroline Press.

. James, O., Affluenza. 2007, London: Vermilion.

. Heath, J. and H. Binswanger, Natural resource degradation effects of poverty and population growth are largely policy-induced; The case of Columbia. Environment and Development Economics, 1996. 1: p. 65-84.

. Borkan, J., et al., Renewing primary care: lessons learned from the Spanish health care system. Health Aff (Millwood), 2010. 29(8): p. 1432-41.

. Warren, K.S., The evolution of selective primary health care. Soc Sci Med, 1988. 26(9): p. 891-8.

. Salvador-Carulla, L., et al., Meso-level comparison of mental health service availability and use in Chile and Spain. Psychiatr Serv, 2008. 59(4): p. 421-8.

. Missoni, E. and G. Solimano, Towards Universal Health Coverage. World Health Report, ed. WHO. 2010, Geneva: World Health Organization.

. UN, Human Development Report 2014: Sustaining Human Progress, Reducing Vulnerability & Building Resilience, H.D. Programme, Editor. 2014, United Nations: Washington DC.

. Bitran, R., Explicit health guarantees for Chileans: the AUGE benefits package. Universal Health Coverage (UNICO) studies series. Vol. 21. 2013, Washington, DC: World Bank.

. De Vos, P., W. De Ceukelaire, and P. Van der Stuyft, Colombia and Cuba, contrasting models in Latin America's health sector reform. Trop Med Int Health, 2006. 11(10): p. 1604-12.

. Vasquez, F., G. Paraje, and M. Estay, Income-related inequality in health and health care utilization in Chile, 2000-2009. Rev Panam Salud Publica, 2013. 33(2): p. 98-106.

. Razzouk, D., et al., Challenges to reduce the '10/90 gap': mental health research in Latin American and Caribbean countries. Acta Psychiatr Scand, 2008. 118(6): p. 490-8.

. Lazcano-Ponce, E., et al., Intellectual developmenta disorders in latin America: a framework for setting policy priorities for research and care. Rev Panam Salud Publica, 2013. 34(3): p. 204-209.

. Sloane, P.D., et al., Health care experiences of U.S. retirees living in Mexico and Panama: a qualitative study. BMC Health Serv Res, 2013. 13: p. 411.

. OECD, Economic Survey of Spain. 1988, Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

. Salvador-Carulla, L., et al., Evaluating mental health care and policy in Spain. J Mental Health Policy Econ, 2010. 13(2): p. 73-86.

. Nuno, R., R. Sauto, and N. Toro, Integrated care initiatives in the Spanish Health System. Int J Integr Care, 2012. 12(Suppl 2): p. e35.

. Nuno, R., et al., Integrated care for chronic conditions: the contribution of the ICCC Framework. Health Policy, 2011. 105(1): p. 55-64.

. Vasquez, M.L., et al., Integrated delivery systems and other examples of collaboration among providers: SESPAS report 2012. Gac Sant, 2012. 26(Supplement 1): p. 94-101.

. Rodriguez, M., R.M. Scheffler, and J.D. Agnew, An update on Spain's health care system: is it time for managed competition? Health Policy, 2000. 51(2): p. 109-31.

. Cortes-Franch, I. and B. Gonzalez Lopez-Valcarcel, The economic-financial crisis and health in Spain. Evidence and viewpoints. SESPAS report 2014. Gac Sanit, 2014. 28 Suppl 1: p. 1-6.

. Bernal-Delgado, E., C. Campillo-Artero, and S. Garcia-Armesto, Health services supply and the economic crisis: either we fund goods and services according to their value or we become bankrupt (SESPAS report 2014). Gac Sanit, 2014. 28 Suppl 1: p. 69-74.

. Lutjens, S., Educational Policy in Socialist Cuba: the Lessons of Forty Years of Reform, in Cuba: Construyendo Futuro. 2000, Spanish Foundation for Marxist Research.

. Gasperini, L., The Cuban Educational System: Lessons and Dilemmas. 2000, New York: World Bank.

. Thomas, H., Cuba: A History. 2010, New York: Penguin.

. Azel, J., Manana in Cuba: The Legacy of Castroism and Transitional Challenges for Cuba. 2010, Bloomington, Indiana: AuthorHouse.

. Coltman, L., The Real Fidel Castro. 2003, New Haven and London: Yale University Press.

. De Vos, P., "No One Left Abandoned": Cuba's National Health System since the 1959 Revolution. International Journal of Health Services, 2005. 35(1): p. 189-207.

. Garfield, R. and S. Santana, The impact of the economic crisis and the US embargo on health in Cuba. Am J Public Health, 1997. 87(1): p. 15-20.

. Nayeri, K. and C.M. Lopez-Pardo, Economic crisis and access to care: Cuba's health care system since the collapse of the Soviet Union. International Journal of Health Services, 2005. 35(4): p. 797-816.

. Cloninger, C.R., I.M. Salloum, and J.E. Mezzich, The dynamic origins of positive health and wellbeing. International Journal of Person-centered Medicine, 2012. 2(2): p. 1-9.

. Meyer, P.J., Attitude is Everything: If you want to succeed above and beyond. 2003, Waco, TX: The Meyer Resource Group.

. WHO, World Health Report 2000: Health Systems: Improving performance. 2000, World Health Organization: Geneva.

. Chomsky, N., Profit over People: Neoliberalism and Global Order. 1999, New York: Seven Stories Press.

. Mooney, G.H., The Health of Nations: Towards a new political economy. First Edition ed. 2012, London: Zed Books.

. Chan, M., Keynote address at the International Seminar on Primary Health Care in Rural China. 2007, World Health Organization: Geneva

. IEG, Enhancing Human Development, in Results and Performance of the World Bank Group 2012, I.E. Group, Editor. 2013, World Bank: Washington DC. p. 20-21.

. Lewin, R. and B. Regine, The Soul at Work: Listen...respond...let go. 2000, New York: Simon & Schuster.

. Begun, J.W., B. Zimmerman, and K. Dooley, Health Care Organizations as Complex Adaptive Systems, in Advances in Health Care Organization Theory, S.M. Mick and M. Wyttenbach, Editors. 2003, Jossey-Bass: San Francisco. p. 253-288.

. Galbraith, J.K., The Predator State: How Conservatives Abandoned the Free Market and Why Liberals Should Too. 2009, New York: The Free Press.

. Stiglitz, J.E., Globalization and its Discontents. 2003, New York: WW Norton & Company.

. Piketty, T. and A. Goldhammer, Capital in the Twenty-First Century. 2014, Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

. Stiglitz, J.E., The Price of Inequality: How Today's Divided Sociey Endangers Our Future. 1st ed. 2013, New York: WW Norton & Company.

. Lancet, Making primary care people-centred: a 21st century blueprnt (editorial). Lancet, 2014. 384: p. 281.

. Galbraith, J.K., What the rise in inequality is really about, in The Predatory State, J.K. Galbraith, Editor. 2013, The Free Press: New York. p. 89-102.

. Daley, S., Danes rethink a welfare state ample to a fault, in New York Times. 2013, New York Tims: New York.

. IFC (2013) Ease of Doing Business in Denmark. Doing Business: Measuring Business Regulations.

. Berwick, D.M., What 'patient-centered' should mean: confessions of an extremist. Health Aff (Millwood), 2009. 28(4): p. w555-65.

. Berwick, D.M., A user's manual for the IOM's 'Quality Chasm' report. Health Aff (Millwood), 2002. 21(3): p. 80-90.

. IOM, Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st Century. 2001, Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.

. Sheppard, K., World Bank reorganization sparks concern about future of social development work, in Huffington Post. 2013, Huffington Post.

. World-Bank, Turn Down the Heat: Why a 4 C Warmer World Must be Avoided, R.a. Development, Editor. 2012, The World Bank: Washington DC.

. UN, Human Development Index, U.D. Programme, Editor. 2013, UN: Washington DC.

. UN, Human Development Report 2013: The Rise of the South: Human Progress in a Diverse World, H.D. Programme, Editor. 2013, UN: Wasington DC.

. Jamison, D.T., et al., Global health 2035: a world converging within a generation. Lancet, 2013. 382(9908): p. 1898-955.

. Chan, M., Return to Alma-Ata. Lancet, 2008. 372(9642): p. 865-6.

. Chan, M., Primary health care as a route to health security. Lancet, 2009. 373(9675): p. 1586-7.

. Chan, M. and A. Lake, Integrated action for the prevention and control of pneumonia and diarrhoea. Lancet, 2013. 381(9876): p. 1436-7.

. WHO, World Health Report 2010: Financing for Universal Health Coverage. 2010, World Health Organization: Geneva.

. WHO, World Health Report 2013: Research for Universal Health Coverage. 2013, World Health Organization: Geneva.

. Economist, Die Grosse Stagnation, in The Economist. 2013, The Economist Group: London. p. 14-15.

. Plsek, P.E. and T. Wilson, Complexity, leadership, and management in healthcare organisations. BMJ, 2001. 323(7315): p. 746-9.

. Mitchell, M., Complexity: A Guided Tour. 2009, New York: Oxford University Press.

. Miller, J.H. and S.E. Page, Complex Adaptive Systems: An introduction to computational models of social life. 2007, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

. Holland, J.H., Signals and Boundaries: The building blocks of complex adaptive systems. 2012, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

. Scott, A., The Nonlinear Universe: Chaos, Emergence, Life. 2007, New York: Springer.

. Mitchell, S.D., Unsimple Truths: Science, Complexity, and Policy. 2009, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

. Kirmayer, L.J., et al., Community resilience: Models, metaphors and measures. Journal of Aboriginal Health, 2009. 7(1): p. 62-117.

. Kirmayer, L.J., Multicultural medicine and the politics of recognition. J Med Philos, 2011. 36(4): p. 410-423.

. Gates, F. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. 2013; Available from: www.gatesfoundation.org.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5750/ijpcm.v4i2.471

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.