Open Access Open Access  Restricted Access Subscription or Fee Access

Meta-analysis and meta-regression analyses explaining heterogeneity in outcomes of chronic care management for depression: implications for person-centered mental healthcare

Jolanda A.C. Meeuwissen, Lidwien C. Lemmens, Hanneke W. Drewes, Karin M.M. Lemmens, Lotte M.G. Steuten, Arianne M.J. Elissen, Hubertus J.M. Vrijhoef, Caroline A. Baan

Abstract


Rationale, aims and objectives: Chronic care management programmes for depression show variation in effectiveness. This study aims to examine the clinical diversity and methodological heterogeneity related to the effectiveness of such programmes and to explain the heterogeneity in clinical outcomes. Objectives are to enable the understanding of and the decision-making about depression management programmes and to contribute to the implementation of chronic care management strategies for depression as part of advances in person-centered mental healthcare.

Method: We performed a systematic review of reviews and empirical studies, including meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses on the most frequently reported outcomes. We explored to what extent the observed heterogeneity can be explained by study quality, length of follow-up, number of components of the Chronic Care Model (CCM) and patient characteristics.

Results: Pooled effects of depression management programmes show significant improvement in treatment response (RR=1.38; p<0.05) and treatment adherence (RR=1.36; p<0.05). In meta-regression analysis, study quality and depression severity explain the substantial heterogeneity in respectively treatment response (36.6%; p=0.0352) and treatment adherence (88.7%; p=0.0083).

Conclusions: The observed heterogeneity in depression outcomes cannot be explained by the number of intervention components and length of follow-up. Yet, the heterogeneity in treatment response can be explained partly by study quality, demonstrating the importance of good quality studies. Heterogeneity in treatment adherence can be explained partly by severity of the depression, indicating that taking account of depression severity contributes to maximising the effectiveness of chronic care management. Other potential sources of heterogeneity should be investigated to support informed decision-making on treating depression as a chronic condition as part of person-centered mental healthcare.


Keywords


Change, chronic care management, depressive disorders, disease management, follow-up, heterogeneity, management of depression, meta-analysis, meta-regression, person-centered medicine, person-centered psychiatry, systematic review, treatment effect.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bromet, E., Andrade, L.H., Hwang, I., Sampson, N.A., Alonso, J., Girolamo, G. de, Graaf, R. de, Demyttenaere, K., Hu, C., Iwata, N., Karam, A.n., Kaur, J., Kostyuchenkos, S., Lépine, J.P., Levinson, D., Matschinger, H., Mora, M.E., Browne, M.O., Posada-Villa, J., Viana, M.C., Williams, D.R. & Kessler, R.C. (2011). Cross-national epidemiology of DSM-IV major depressive episode. BMC Medicine 9, 90.

Lopez, A.D. & Mathers, C.D. (2006). Measuring the global burden of disease and epidemiological transitions: 2002–2030. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology 100 (5,6) 481-499.

Üstun, T.B., Ayuso-Mateos, J.L., Chatterji. S., Mathers, C. & Murray, C.J. (2004). Global burden of depressive disorder in the year 2000. British Journal of Psychiatry 184, 386–392.

Murray, C.J. & Lopez, A.D. (1997). Alternative projection of mortality and disability by cause 1990-2020: global burden of disease study. Lancet 349, 1498-1504.

Bodenheimer, T. & Fernandez, A. (2005). High and rising health care costs. Part 4: can costs be controlled while preserving quality? Annals of Internal Medicine 143 (1) 26-31.

Institute of Medicine (IOM). (2001). Crossing the Quality Chasm: A New Health System for the 21st Century. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

World Health Organization. (2008). mhGAP Mental Health Gap Action Programme. Scaling up care for mental, neurological, and substance abuse disorders. Geneva: WHO Press.

Bodenheimer, T., Wagner, E.H. & Grumbach, K. (2002). Improving primary care for patients with chronic illness. Journal of the American Medical Association 288 (14) 1775-1779.

Bodenheimer, T., Wagner, E.H. & Grumbach, K. (2002). Improving primary care for patients with chronic illness. Part 2. Journal of the American Medical Association 288 (15) 1909-1914.

Wagner, E.H., Austin, B.T. & VonKorff, M. (1996). Organizing care for patients with chronic illness. Millbank Quarterly 74 (4) 511-44.

Wagner, E.H., Austin, B.T., Davis, C., Hindmarsh, M., Schaefer, J. & Bonomi, A. (2001). Improving chronic illness care: translating evidence into action. Health Affairs (Millwood) 20 (6) 64-78.

Wagner, E.H. (1998). Chronic disease management: what will it take to improve care for chronic illness? Effective Clinical Practice 1 (1) 2-4.

World Health Organization. (2001). World Health Report 2001: Mental health: New understanding, new hope. Geneva: WHO Press.

World Health Organization/World Organization of Family Doctors. (2008). Integrating mental health into primary care: a global perspective. Geneva: WHO Press.

Singh, D. (2008). How can chronic disease management programmes operate across care settings and providers? Copenhagen: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe/European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.

Greβ, S., Baan, C.A., Calnan, M., Dedeu, T., Groenewegen, P., Howson, H., Maroy, L., Nolte, E., Redaelli, M., Saarelma, O., Schmacke, N., Schumacher, K., van Lente, E.J. & Vrijhoef, B. (2009). Co-ordination and management of chronic conditions in Europe: the role of primary care. Position paper of the European Forum for Primary Care. Quality in Primary Care 17 (1) 75-86.

Nolte, E., Knai, C. & McKee, M. (2008). Managing Chronic Conditions. Experience in Eight Countries. Brussels: European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies.

Hofmarcher, M.M., Oxley, H. & Rusticelli, E. (2007). Improved health system performance through better care coordination. OECD Health Working Paper. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).

Katon, W. & Guico-Pabia, C.J. (2011). Improving quality of depression care using organized systems of care: a review of literature. The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders 13 (1) PCC.10r01019blu.

Coleman, K., Austin, B.T., Brach, C. & Wagner, E.H. (2009). Evidence on the Chronic Care Model in the new millennium. Health Affairs (Millwood) 28 (1) 75-85.

Bower, P., Gilbody, S., Richards, D., Fletcher, J. & Sutton, A. (2006). Collaborative care for depression in primary care. Making sense of a complex intervention: systematic review and meta-regression. British Journal of Psychiatry 189, 484-493.

Scott, I. (2009). What are the most effective strategies for improving quality and safety of health care? Review. Internal Medicine Journal 39, 389-400.

Mattke, S., Seid, M. & Ma, S. (2007). Evidence for the effect of disease management: is $1 billion a year a good investment? American Journal of Managed Care 13 (12) 670-676.

Congressional Budget Office. (2004). An Analysis of the Literature on Disease Management Programmes. Washington, DC: U.S. Congress.

Drewes, H.W., Steuten, L.M.G., Lemmens, L.C., Baan, C.A., Boshuizen, H.C., Elissen, A.M.J., Lemmens, K.M.M., Meeuwissen, J.A.C. & Vrijhoef, H.J.M. (2012). The effectiveness of chronic care management for heart failure: meta-regression analyses to explain the heterogeneity in outcomes. Health Services Research Mar 14, doi: 10.1111/j.1475-6773.2012.01396.x.

Elissen, A.M.J., Steuten, L.M.G., Lemmens, L.C., Drewes, H.W., Lemmens, K.M.M., Meeuwissen, J.A.C., Baan, C.A. & Vrijhoef H.J.M. (2012). Meta-analysis of the effectiveness of chronic care management for diabetes: investigating heterogeneity in outcomes. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice Feb 29, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2753.2012.01817.x.

Lemmens, K.M.M., Lemmens, L.C., Boom, J.H.C., Drewes, H.W., Meeuwissen, J.A.C., Steuten, L.M.G., Vrijhoef, H.J.M. & Baan, C.A. (2011). Chronic care management for patients with COPD: a critical review of available evidence. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice Dec 2, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2753.2011.01805.x.

Norris, S.L., Glasgow, R.E., Engelgau, M.M., O'Conner, P.J. & McCulloch, D. (2003). Chronic disease management: A definition and systematic approach to component interventions. Disease Management and Health Outcomes 11, 477-488.

Steuten, L.M.G., Vrijhoef, H.J.M., Merode, G.G. van, Severens, J.L. & Spreeuwenberg, C. (2004). The Health Technology Assessment-Disease Management instrument reliably measured methodologic quality of health technology assessments of disease management. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 57, 881-888.

Zwar, N., Harris, M., Griffiths, R., Roland, M., Dennis, S., Powell Davies, G. & Hasan, I. (2006). A systematic review of chronic disease management. Canberra: Australian Primary Health Care Institute (APHCRI), Research Centre for Primary Health Care and Equity, School for Public Health and Community Medicine, UNSW.

Lipsey, M.W. & Wilson, D.B. (2001). Practical Meta-Analysis. Applied Social Research Methods Series, Vol. 49. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Houwelingen, H.C. van, Arends, L.R. & Stijnen, T. (2002). Advanced methods in meta-analysis: multivariate approach and meta-regression. Statistics in Medicine 21 (4) 589-624.

Thompson, S.G. & Higgins, J.P. (2002). How should meta-regression analyses be undertaken and interpreted? Statistics in Medicine 21 (11) 1559-1573.

Badamgarav, E., Weingarten, S.R., Henning, J.M., Knight, K., Hasselblad, V., Gano, A. Jr. & Ofman, J.J. (2003). Effectiveness of disease management programs in depression: a systematic review. American Journal of Psychiatry 160 (12) 2080-2090.

Christensen, H., Griffiths, K.M., Gulliver, A., Clack, D., Kljakovic, M. & Wells, L. (2008). Models in the delivery of depression care: a systematic review of randomised and controlled intervention trials. BMC Family Practice 9, 25.

Frederick, J.T., Steinman, L.E., Prohaska, T., Satariano, W.A., Bruce, M., Bryant, L., Ciechanowski, P. DeVellis, B., Leith, K., Leyden, K.M., Sharkey, J., Simon, G.E., Wilson, N., Unützer, J., Snowden, M. & Late Life Depression Special Interest Project Panalists. (2007). Community-based treatment of late life depression an expert panel-informed literature review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 33 (3) 222-249.

Gensichen, J., Beyer, M., Muth, C., Gerlach, F.M., VonKorff, M. & Ormel, J. (2006). Case management to improve major depression in primary health care: a systematic review. Psychological Medicine 36 (1) 7-14.

Gilbody, S., Whitty, P., Grimshaw, J. & Thomas, R. (2003). Educational and organizational interventions to improve the management of depression in primary care: a systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association 289 (23) 3145-3151.

Gilbody, S., Bower, P., Fletcher, J., Richards, D. & Sutton, A.J. (2006). Collaborative care for depression: a cumulative meta-analysis and review of longer-term outcomes. Archives of Internal Medicine 166 (21) 2314-2321.

Gilbody, S., Bower, P. & Whitty, P. (2006). Costs and consequences of enhanced primary care for depression: systematic review of randomised economic evaluations. British Journal of Psychiatry 189, 297-308.

Neumeyer-Gromen, A., Lampert, T., Stark, K. & Kallischnigg, G. (2004). Disease management programs for depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Medical Care 42 (12) 1211-1221.

Pirraglia, P.A., Rosen, A.B., Hermann, R.C., Olchanski, N.V. & Neumann, P. (2004). Cost-utility analysis studies of depression management: a systematic review. American Journal of Psychiatry 161 (12) 2155-2162.

Vergouwen, A.C.M., Bakker, A., Katon, W.J., Verheij, T.J. & Koerselman, F. (2003). Improving adherence to antidepressants: a systematic review of interventions. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 64 (12) 1415-1420.

Williams, J,W, Jr., Gerrity, M., Holsinger, T., Dobscha, S., Gaynes, B. & Dietrich A. (2007). Systematic review of multifaceted interventions to improve depression care. General Hospital Psychiatry 29 (2) 91-116.

Adler, D.A., Bungay, K.M., Wilson, I.B., Pei, Y., Supran, S., Peckham, E., Cynn, D.J. & Roger, W.H. (2004). The impact of a pharmacist intervention on 6-month outcomes in depressed primary care patients. General Hospital Psychiatry 26 (3) 199-209.

Araya, R., Rojas, G., Fritsch, R., Gaete, J., Rojas, M., Simon, G. & Peters, T.J. (2003). Treating depression in primary care in low-income women in Santiago, Chile: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 361 (9362) 995-1000.

Arthur, A.J., Jagger, C., Lindesay, J. & Matthews, R.J. (2002). Evaluating a mental health assessment for older people with depressive symptoms in general practice: a randomised controlled trial. British Journal of General Practice 52 (476) 202-207.

Aubert, R.E., Fulop, G., Xia, F., Thiel, M., Maldonato, D. & Woo, C. (2003). Evaluation of a depression health management program to improve outcomes in first or recurrent episode depression. American Journal of Managed Care 9 (5) 374-380.

Blanchard, M.R., Waterreus, A., Mann, A.H. (1999). Can a brief intervention have a longer-term benefit? The case of the research nurse and depressed older people in the community. Internal Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 14 (9) 733-738.

Brown, J.B., Shye, D., McFarland, B.H., Nichols, G.A., Mullooly, J.P. & Johnson, R.E. (2000). Controlled trials of CQI and academic detailing to implement a clinical practice guideline for depression. Joint Commission Journal on Quality Improvement 26 (1) 39-54.

Bruce, M.L., Have, TR ten, Reynolds, III, C.F., Katz, I.I.; Schulberg, H.C., Mulsant, B.H., Brown, G.K., McAvay, G.J., Pearson, J.L. & Alexopoulos, G.S. (2004). Reducing suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms in depressed older primary care patients: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 291 (9) 1081-1091.

Capoccia, K.L., Boudreau, D.M., Blough, D.K., Ellsworth, A.J., Clark, D.R., Stevens, N.G., Katon, W.J. & Sullivan, S.D. (2004). Randomized trial of pharmacist interventions to improve depression care and outcomes in primary care. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 61 (4) 364-372.

Ciechanowski, P., Wagner, E., Schmaling, K., Schwartz, S., Williams, B., Diehr, P., Kulzer, J., Gray, S., Collier, C. & LoGerfo, J. (2004). Community-integrated home-based depression treatment in older adults: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 291 (13) 1569-1577.

Cuijpers, P. & van Lammeren, P. (2001). Secondary prevention of depressive symptoms in elderly inhabitants of residential homes. Internal Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 16 (7)702-708.

Datto, C.J., Thompson, R., Horowitz, D., Disbot, M. & Oslin, D.W. (2003). The pilot study of a telephone disease management program for depression. General Hospital Psychiatry 25 (3) 169-177.

Dietrich, A.J., Oxman, T.E., Williams, J.W., Jr., Schulberg, H.C., Bruce, M.L., Lee, P.W., Barry, S., Raue, P.J., Lefever, J.J., Heo M., Heo, M., Rost, K., Kroenke, K., Gerrity, M. & Nutting, P.A. (2004). Re-engineering systems for the treatment of depression in primary care: cluster randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal 329 (7466) 602.

Dobscha, S.K., Corson, K., Hickam, D.H., Perrin, N.A., Kraemer, D.F. & Gerrity, M.S. (2006). Depression decision support in primary care: a cluster randomized trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 145 (7) 477-487.

Finley, P.R., Rens, H.R., Pont, J.T., Gess, S.L., Louie, C., Bull, S.A., Lee, J.Y. & Bero, L.A. (2003). Impact of a collaborative care model on depression in a primary care setting: a randomized controlled trial. Pharmacotherapy 23 (9) 1175-1185.

Flaherty, J.H., McBride, M., Marzouk, S., Miller, D.K., Chien, N., Hanchett, M., Leander, S., Kaiser, F.E. & Morley, J.E. (1998). Decreasing hospitalization rates for older home care patients with symptoms of depression. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 46 (1) 31-38.

Fortney, J.C., Pyne, J.M., Edlund, M.J., Williams, D.K., Robinson, D.E., Mittal, D. & Henderson, K.L. (2007). A randomized trial of telemedicine-based collaborative care for depression. Journal of General Internal Medicine 22 (8) 1086-1093.

Goldberg, H.I., Wagner, E.H., Fihn, S.D., Martin, D.P., Horowitz, C.R., Christensen, D.B., Cheadle, A.D., Diehr, P. & Simon G. (1998). A randomized controlled trial of CQI teams and academic detailing: can they alter compliance with guidelines? Joint Commission Journal on Quality Improvement 24 (3) 130-142.

Hedrick, S.C., Chaney, E.F., Felker, B., Liu, C.F., Hasenberg, N., Heagerty, P., Buchanan, J., Bagala, R., Greenberg, D., Paden, G., Fihn, S.D. & Katon, W. (2003). Effectiveness of collaborative care depression treatment in Veterans' Affairs primary care. Journal of General Internal Medicine 18 (1) 9-16.

Hunkeler, E.M., Meresman, J.F., Hargreaves, W.A., Fireman, B., Berman, W.H., Kirsch, A.J., Groebe, J., Hurt, S.W., Braden P., Getzell M., Feigenbaum, P.A., Peng, T. & Salzer, M. (2000). Efficacy of nurse telehealth care and peer support in augmenting treatment of depression in primary care. Archives of Family Medicine 9 (8) 700-708.

Jarjoura, D., Polen, A., Baum, E., Kropp, D., Hetrick, S. & Rutecki, G. (2004). Effectiveness of screening and treatment for depression in ambulatory indigent patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine 19 (1) 78-84.

Katon, W., VonKorff, M., Lin, E., Walker, E., Simon, G.E., Bush, T., Robinson, P. & Russo, J. (1995). Collaborative management to achieve treatment guidelines. Impact on depression in primary care. Journal of the American Medical Association 273 (13) 1026-1031.

Katon, W., Robinson, P., VonKorff, M., Lin, E., Bush, T., Ludman, E., Simon, G. & Walker, E. (1996). A multifaceted intervention to improve treatment of depression in primary care. Archives of General Psychiatry 53 (10) 924-932.

Katon, W., Rutter, C., Ludman, E.J., VonKorff, M., Lin, E., Simon, G., Bush, T., Walker, E. & Unützer, J. (2001). A randomized trial of relapse prevention of depression in primary care. Archives of General Psychiatry 58 (3) 241-247.

Katon, W., Russo, J., VonKorff, M., Lin, E., Simon, G., Bush, T., Ludman, E. & Walker, E. (2002). Long-term effects of a collaborative care intervention in persistently depressed primary care patients. Journal of General Internal Medicine 17 (10) 741-748.

Katzelnick, D.J., Simon, G.E., Pearson, S.D., Manning, W.G., Helstad, C.P., Henk, H.J., Cole, S.M., Lin, E.H., Taylor, L.H. & Kobak, K.A. (2000). Randomized trial of a depression management program in high utilizers of medical care. Archives of Family Medicine 9 (4) 345-351.

Lin, E.H., Simon, G.E., Katon, W.J., Russo, J.E., VonKorff, M., Bush, T.M., Ludman, E.J. & Walker, E.A. (1999). Can enhanced acute-phase treatment of depression improve long-term outcomes? A report of randomized trials in primary care. American Journal of Psychiatry 156 (4) 643-645.

Lin, E.H., VonKorff, M., Russo, J., Katon, W., Simon, G.E., Unützer, J., Bush, T., Walker, E. & Ludman, E. (2000). Can depression treatment in primary care reduce disability? A stepped care approach. Archives of Family Medicine 9 (10) 1052-1058.

Llewellyn-Jones, R.H., Baikie, K.A., Smithers, H., Cohen, J., Snowdon, J., Tennant, C.C. (1999). Multifaceted shared care intervention for late life depression in residential care: randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal 319 (7211) 676-682.

Mann, A.H., Blizard, R., Murray, J., Smith, J.A., Botega, N., MacDonald, E. & Wilkinson, G. (1998). An evaluation of practice nurses working with general practitioners to treat people with depression. British Journal of General Practice 48 (426) 875-879.

Miranda, J., Chung, J.Y., Green, B.L., Krupnick, J., Siddique, J., Revicki, D.A. & Belin, T. (2003). Treating depression in predominantly low-income young minority women: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 290 (1) 57-65.

Oslin, D.W., Sayers, S., Ross, J., Kane, V., Have, T. ten, Conigliaro, J. & Cornelius, J. (2003). Disease management for depression and at-risk drinking via telephone in an older population of veterans. Psychosomatic Medicine 65 (6) 931-937.

Peveler, R., George, C., Kinmonth, A.L., Campbell, M. & Thompson, C. (1999). Effect of antidepressant drug counselling and information leaflets on adherence to drug treatment in primary care: randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal 319 (7210) 612-615.

Pyne, J.M., Rost, K.M., Zhang, M., Williams, D.K., Smith, J. & Fortney, J. (2003). Cost-effectiveness of a primary care depression intervention. Journal of General Internal Medicine 18 (6) 432-441.

Rickles, N.M., Svarstad, B.L., Statz-Paynter, J.L., Taylor, L.V. & Kobak, K.A. (2005). Pharmacist telemonitoring of antidepressant use: effects on pharmacist-patient collaboration. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association 45 (3) 344-353.

Rollman, B.L., Hanusa, B.H., Lowe, H.J., Gilbert, T., Kapoor, W.N. & Schulberg, H.C. (2002). A randomized trial using computerized decision support to improve treatment of major depression in primary care. Journal of General Internal Medicine 17 (7) 493-503.

Rost, K., Nutting, P., Smith, J., Werner, J. & Duan, N. (2001). Improving depression outcomes in community primary care practice: a randomized trial of the quEST intervention. Quality Enhancement by Strategic Teaming. Journal of General Internal Medicine 16 (3) 143-149.

Sherbourne, C.D., Wells, K.B., Duan, N., Miranda, J., Unützer, J., Jaycox, L., Schoenbaum, M., Meredith L.S. & Rubenstein, L.V. (2001). Long-term effectiveness of disseminating quality improvement for depression in primary care. Archives of General Psychiatry 58 (7) 696-703.

Simon, G.E., VonKorff, M., Rutter, C. & Wagner, E. (2000). Randomised trial of monitoring, feedback, and management of care by telephone to improve treatment of depression in primary care. British Medical Journal 320 (7234) 550-554.

Simon, G.E., Ludman, E.J., Tutty, S., Operskalski, B. & VonKorff, M. (2004). Telephone psychotherapy and telephone care management for primary care patients starting antidepressant treatment: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 292 (8) 935-942.

Solberg, L.I., Fischer, L.R., Wei, F., Rush, W.A., Conboy, K.S., Davis, T.F. & Heinrich, R.L. (2001). A CQI intervention to change the care of depression: a controlled study. Effective Clinical Practice 4 (6) 239-249.

Swindle, R.W., Rao, J.K., Helmy, A., Plue, L., Zhou, X.H., Eckert, G.J. & Weinberger, M. (2003). Integrating clinical nurse specialists into the treatment of primary care patients with depression. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine 33 (1) 17-37.

Trivedi, M.H., Rush, A.J., Crismon, M.L., Kashner, T.M., Toprac, M.G., Carmody, T.J., Key, T., Biggs, M.M., Shores-Wilson, K., Witte, B., Suppes, T., Miller, A.L., Altshuler, K.Z. & Shon, S.P. (2004). Clinical results for patients with major depressive disorder in the Texas Medication Algorithm Project. Archives of General Psychiatry 61 (7) 669-680.

Unützer, J., Rubenstein, L., Katon, W.J., Tang, L., Duan, N., Lagomasino, I.T. & Wells, K.B. (2001). Two-year effects of quality improvement programs on medication management for depression. Archives of General Psychiatry 58 (10) 935-942.

Unützer, J., Katon, W., Callahan, C.M., Williams, J.W., Jr., Hunkeler, E., Harpole, L., Hoffing, M., Della Penna, R.D., Noël, P.H., Lin, E.H., Areán, P.A., Hegel, M.T., Tang, L., Belin, T.R., Oishi, S., Langston, C. & ~IMPACT Investigators. (2002). Collaborative care management of late-life depression in the primary care setting: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association 288 (22) 2836-2845.

Worrall, G., Angel, J., Chaulk, P., Clarke, C. & Robbins, M. (1999). Effectiveness of an educational strategy to improve family physicians' detection and management of depression: a randomized controlled trial. Canadian Medical Association Journal 161 (1) 37-40.

Moher, D., Cook, D.J, Eastwood S., Olkin, I., Rennie, D., Stroup, D.F., for the QUOROM Group (1999). Improving the quality of reports of meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials: the QUOROM statement. Lancet 354, 1896-1900.

Walker, J., Sharpe, M., Kroenke, K. & Murray, G. (2010) The HSCL-20: one questionnaire, two versions. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 68 (3) 313-314.

Vannoy, S.D., Arean, P. & Unützer, J. (2010). Advantages of using estimated depression-free days for evaluating treatment efficacy. Psychiatric Services 61 (2) 160-163.

Farivar, S.S., Cunningham, W.E. & Hays, R.D. (2007). Correlated physical and mental health summary scores for the SF-36 and SF-12 Health Survey, V.1. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes 5, 54.

Jüni, P., Witschi, A., Bloch, R. & Egger, M. (1999). The hazards of scoring the quality of clinical trials for meta analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association 282 (11) 1054-1060.

Jüni, P., Altman, D.G. & Egger, M. (2001). Assessing the quality of controlled clinical trials. Systematic reviews in health care. British Medical Journal 323, 42-46.

Gellatly, J., Bower, P., Hennessy, S., Richards, D., Gilbody, S. & Lovell K. (2007). What makes self-help interventions effective in the management of depressive symptoms? Meta-analysis and meta-regression. Psychological Medicine 37 (9) 1217-1228.

Jané-Llopis, E., Hosman, C., Jenkins, R. & Anderson, P. (2003). Predictors of efficacy in depression prevention programmes. Meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry 183, 384-397.

Linden, A. & Adler-Milstein, J. (2008). Medicare disease management in policy context. Health Care Financing Review 29 (3) 1-11.

Paykel, E.S. (2007). Cognitive therapy in relapse prevention in depression. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 10 (1) 131-136.

Wagner, E.H., Bennett, S.M., Austin, B.T., Greene, S.M., Schaefer, J.K. & VonKorff, M. (2005). Finding common ground: patient-centeredness and evidence-based chronic illness care. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 11 (Supplement 1) S7-15.

Østergaard, S.D., Jensen, S.O.W. & Bech, P. (2011). The heterogeneity of the depressive syndrome: when numbers get serious. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 124 (6) 495-496.

Bower, P. & Gilbody, S. (2005). Stepped care in psychological therapies: access, effectiveness and efficiency. Narrative literature review. British Journal of Psychiatry 186, 11–17.

Davidoff, F., Batalden, P., Stevens, D., Ogrinc, G., Mooney, S.E., for the SQUIRE development group (2009). Publication guidelines for quality improvement studies in health care: evolution of the SQUIRE project. British Medical Journal 338, a3152.

Lemmens, K.M., Nieboer, A.P., Schayck, C.P. van, Asin, J.D. & Huijsman, R. (2008). A model to evaluate quality and effectiveness of disease management. Quality & Safety in Health Care 17 (6) 447-453.

Linden, A., Adams, J. & Roberts, N. (2003). Evaluation methods in disease management: determining programme effectiveness. Position Paper for the Disease Management Association of America (DMAA). Washington, DC: Disease Management Association of America.

Berwick, D.M. (2008). The science of improvement. Journal of the American Medical Association 299 (10) 1182-1184.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5750/ijpcm.v2i4.312

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.